Wastewater and effluent treatment

Wastewater & Effluent Treatment

Reuse of water is key to preserving our natural resources and waste water treatment is an integral part of this. Waste water treatment plants are rarely at optimal performance and often money is literally going down the drain. The right products and approach can help you to help your customers improve the quality of their waste water discharge thus minimising environmental impact.

The particular challenges of waste water treatment vary from site to site and industry to industry. The challenges may include issues from both inorganic and organic contaminants which can be detrimental to the toxicity, pH, colour, odour and/or oxygen demand of receiving waters.

B & V Chemicals understands the complex chemical requirements of industrial wastewater treatment and has technical resources dedicated to support the needs of our customers operating in this area. We are committed to innovation in the solutions and technology we supply, and to providing the highest level of service to our customers. To support this ethos we have a broad range of chemistry solutions designed specifically for use in wastewater treatment.

pH adjustment

pH adjustment may be required for a number of reasons:

  • To directly precipitate out chemicals otherwise present as more soluble salts
  • To increase the efficacy of any coagulants used
  • To enable discharge limits to be met
  • To maximise the concentration of the most efficient chlorine containing species for disinfection (e.g. hypochlorous acid vs hypochlorite)

The most commonly used chemicals for pH adjustment in effluent plants are lime, sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate.

Product code Composition Comments
BV23 An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Concentrated alkaline pH adjuster for many applications including adjusting the pH of waste water.
BV448 Sulphuric acid Concentrated acidic pH adjuster for many applications including adjusting the pH of waste water.
BV903 Lime suspension An alkali for use in pH control of potable water, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment.
BV411 Phosphoric acid Concentrated acidic pH adjuster for many applications including adjusting the pH of waste water.
BV228 Sodium Bicarbonate Powder product for neutralising acid solutions
BV1017 Sodium carbonate solution Liquid product used to increase the alkalinity of waste water.

Coagulants

Many of the solid particles in water are as suspended solids (a colloid). They are very small electrically charged particles which repel each other and will not settle out of suspension by gravity alone in a reasonable timeframe; hence the need for chemical treatment. This typically results in the removal of 80-90% of suspended solids by chemical precipitation.

Coagulants act by neutralising the charge which enables the particles to come together forming slightly larger particles or microflocs.

Traditional coagulants were inorganic compounds, and can have advantages over the inorganic coagulants in that the produced sludge volume is often less, sludge disposal costs can be lower and they are less pH dependent.

Product code Composition Comments
BV784 Tannin based coagulant An aqueous solution of a complex organic polymer coagulant. Particularly appropriate for use in splitting oil- water emulsions. This product is also suitable for use in many applications such as the food industry, oil fields, petrochemical plants and metal working plants.
BV627 An aqueous solution of polyaluminium chloride. A cost-effective primary coagulant product. Good insoluble organics removal giving effective BOD/COD reduction. Excellent phosphorous removal. Good colour removal.
BV699 Aluminium hydroxide chloride Versatile product. Intrinsic buffering reduces pH swings. Good organics /colour removal. Also excellent phosphorous removal
BV611 Polyaluminium chloride. A cost-effective primary coagulant product. Good insoluble organics removal giving effective BOD/COD reduction. Excellent phosphorous removal. Good colour removal.
BV626 Trivalent aluminium enhanced by a powerful, highly charged cationic polymer. Effective BOD/COD removal with good organics/colour removal. An easy to feed liquid which produces lower sludge volumes. Excellent phosphorous removal,
BV390 Ferric chloride Effective in clarification. Reduces phosphate levels. Reduces levels of heavy metals (e.g. lead, coper, cadmium and zinc)
BV417 An aqueous solution of ferric ions Effective BOD/COD removal with good organics/colour removal. Excellent phosphorous removal

Flocculants

The addition of flocculants brings the microflocs into contact resulting in their bonding and formation of flocs which are large enough for them to be separated out from the waste water. The flocculants are organic polymers (generally polyacrylamide) with varying charge densities and molecular weights. They act by forming a “bridge” between the microflocs. Mixing which should be gentle is critical to the performance of the flocculant and is generally done by mechanical or air agitation; overmixing can lead to the breakdown of the flocs.

B & V Chemicals can supply flocculants in different forms including powders and emulsions in a variety of different molecular weights and charge densities.

Product code Composition Comments
BV600 Polyacrylamide in oil based emulsion A low charge density anionic water soluble polymer in oil based emulsion for use as a flocculant across a range of industries
BV601 A high molecular weight, medium charge density, anionic latex emulsion polymer Ensures high clarity of the treated water from applications such as: flotation, sedimentation, filtration, thickening, centrifugation and belt pressing.
BV641 High charge, high molecular weight cationic polymer. Liquid formulation. A superior quality flocculant for the removal of suspended solids. Suitable for raw water clarification, primary and secondary effluent clarification and oily waste water clarification.
BV796 A powder product with a medium anionic charge density and very high molecular weight An anionic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV610 A powder product with very high charge density and molecular weight cationic polymer A superior quality flocculant for the removal of suspended solids. Suitable for raw water clarification, primary and secondary effluent clarification and oil waste water clarification.
BV1023 A medium molecular weight anionic copolymer of acrylamide in a water based emulsion An anionic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV423 A high molecular weight anionic copolymer of acrylamide in emulsion A medium charge density anionic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV1081 Cationic Polyacrylamide based Unique, high molecular weight cross linked flocculant of high charge This product is especially effective in those applications where extreme high molecular weight products are needed such as screw presses, centrifuges, and belt filter presses.
BV964 A cationic polyacrylamide of very high charge density and high molecular weight in emulsion. A cationic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV1501 An anionic polyacrylamide in an aqueous dispersion The product is a polymer in an aqueous dispersion - free of solvents, oils and surfactants. It provides “a more ecological” way of working" than traditional emulsion products and is also easier to use with increased product stability and without the requirement for specialised make-down equipment.
BV1508 An aqueous solution of cationic water soluble polymer in an emulsion. A cationic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV1506 A cationic polyacrylamide of very high charge density and high molecular weight in emulsion. A cationic flocculant primarily for use in clarification following coagulation to aid settlement or flotation depending on the treatment process.
BV1521 Cationic copolymer of acrylamide and cationic monomer in powder form. A polyelectrolyte for the conditioning of a variety of sludge’s produced in waste-water treatment, prior to mechanical or static dewatering. It is a powder and needs to be prepared, as a solution, before use. Highly effective
- - across a wide range of applications including mechanical dewatering, thickening, flotation and clarification. Operates over a wide pH range - typically pH 4-9.

Antifoam agents

Antifoam agents are often used in both sewage treatment plants as well as in other industrial waste water treatment applications. B & V Chemicals have a variety of antifoam formulations, both organic and inorganic. A small selection is shown below.

Product code Composition Comments
BV1546 Concentrated Silicone emulsion Applied directly to the foam it causes rapid "Foam Kill" whereby the foam collapses. Foam will quickly return unless dosing is continuous at low levels
BV1554 Organic based antifoam Inhibits the build-up of foams in systems containing proteins, starches, yeasts, synthetic resins and fibrous/particulate materials. Suitable for use in the anaerobic digestion of effluent sludge, fermentation of yeasts, citric acid and other aerobic systems.Suitable for use in recirculating scrubbing systems containing high levels of particulates and electrolytes.
BV617 Silicone based antifoam. A concentrated emulsion - acts both as a foam killer and foam preventer. Useful in many applications including waste water process applications.

Odour Control

Odours are not infrequently generated in effluent plants and may be particularly associated with the sludge which contains higher concentrations of odourous chemicals. B & V Chemicals have a number of products which are able to neutralise many odours such as those associated with hydrogen sulphide, ethylamines, butylamines, mercaptans, fatty acids and ammonia.

Product code Composition Comments
BV623 Natural plant oils in aqueous solution. Reacts with odour causing molecules in the gas/vapour phase. Neutralises ammonia, rendering, faecal, indolic, decomposing, sour and fishy odours. Dissipates rapidly, leaving no malodours or fragrance.
BV909 Natural plant oils in aqueous solution. Dilute solution of BV623
BV631 An aqueous blend of nutrients and anti-sulphides. Blend of nutrients designed to inhibit the conversion of sulphate to sulphide.

Oxidation (Disinfection)

B&V Chemicals have a number of oxidising biocide products which can be used in disinfection applications.

Product code Composition Comments
BV102 Sodium Hpochlorite Chlorine is able to achieve disinfection goals through bacteria and virus inactivation. Chlorine can also oxidize and degrade soluble contaminants, such as agricultural or pharmaceutical compounds present in wastewater
BV103 Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is used to reduce the BOD and COD of industrial wastewaters and for the pre-treatment of waters that contain some contaminants that are toxic, inhibitory, or recalcitrant to biological treatment (e.g., pesticides, plasticizers, resins, coolants, and dyestuffs)
BV19 9% Hydrochloric acid Dosed 1:1 with BV123 through a chlorine dioxide generator to produce chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is effective as both a disinfectant and an oxidant in wastewater treatment where It destroys phenolics, simple cyanides and sulphides by oxidation.
BV123 An 8% solution of sodium chlorite Dosed 1:1 with BV19 through a chlorine dioxide generator to produce chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is effective as both a disinfectant and an oxidant in wastewater treatment where It destroys phenolics, simple cyanides and sulphides by oxidation.

Specialist Products

B & V Chemicals have a number of products which can be used in more specialised applications, for example products for the removal of specific chemical moieties to meet discharge standards. As biological treatment can also form part of the process in effluent plants B & V Chemicals can supply products containing bacteria selected for their efficacy in waste water treatment. We also have a range of products which provide the nutrients required (nitrogen/phosphorus) for the bacteria to thrive.

A small selection of our specialist products is shown below.

Product code Composition Comments
BV686 A solution of viable bacteria in nutrient. A synergistic blend of selectively adapted bacterial cultures developed for general application to food processing wastewaters with a special emphasis on the metabolism of fats, oils and greases. Applications in food processing e.g. dairies, distilleries, tanneries, poultry processing and pharmaceutical, paper and pulp mills
BV645 Freeze dried bacteria on a carrier Produces a biomass that is able to degrade wastes with high grease contents preventing the build up of grease, oil and fat deposits. Reduces both BOD and COD. Results in the production of sludge flocs with superior settling characteristics
BV480 A solution of bacteria and enzymes. Biological product used for unblocking pipes and drains particularly effective in digesting fats, greases and oils

Our knowledge and experience allows us to make suggestions for the right treatment programme for your waste. However, the parameters vary widely even in treating the waste from the same industry so that some product optimisation in terms of product selection and dose rate will be required.

Call our technical team on +44 (0)1327 709 439 Or request a call back

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